A deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) might be the key factor linked to the risk of COVID-19 mortality. Find out what you need to know about NAD+ and the therapy for reducing the risk of mortality among COVID-19 patients.
What Is Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) and How a Deficiency of NAD+ Affects COVID-19 Patients
What Is NAD+?
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme found in all of the body’s cells. It is engaged in a variety of cellular activities such as producing energy, maintaining cellular health, and responding to viral infections.
The amounts of NAD+ vary significantly with age. Whereas older people have the lowest amounts of NAD+, infants and children have the highest levels of NAD+.
What Are the Roles of NAD+?
NAD+ catalyzes electron transfer in metabolic reduction-oxidation reactions and serves as an electron shuttle in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, NAD+ is critical to the production of energy in the body as well as the control of critical cellular functions. Some of the roles of NAD+ include:
- Help the brain regenerate.
- Boost your brain’s performance.
- Improve your memory.
- Reduce symptoms of depression.
- Improve one’s capacity to concentrate.
- Increase your mental clarity.
- Boost your mood.
Deficiency of NAD+
NAD+ levels decline as people age. NAD+ levels have reduced to half by the time a person reaches middle age. Scientists believe that the fall in NAD+ levels is due to a decrease in NAD+ synthesis when people get older.
Decreased NAD+ levels associated with older age might impair the immunological response to infection, including the response to COVID-19. It is because this depletion causes energy loss and cell death, potentially amplifying the pro-inflammatory exacerbated production and contributing to deleterious consequences.
As a result, the hyperinflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 is linked to a high fatality rate. Since any considerable increase in oxidative stress can unmask nutritional deficiencies, a shortage of NAD+ could be the key factor linked to the SARS-Cov-2 illness spectrum and mortality.
NAD+ Therapy in Preventing Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients
COVID-19 includes three clinical phases: an initial upper respiratory tract infection, a pneumonic phase, and a lethal hyperinflammatory phase. COVID-19 mortality rates rise with age, reaching 14 percent in those over 80, implying immune system malfunction as people age.
NAD+ therapy would aim to intervene at an early stage before mechanical ventilation is required or major organ failure develops.
If given prophylactically or therapeutically, NAD+ therapy may help to save more COVID-19 patients by providing the elderly with a ‘younger’ immune system. This allows their immune system to identify, respond to, and remove the coronavirus before it becomes life-threatening. This is possible because NAD+ prevents the over-activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and regulates the ongoing inflammatory state, immune system overactivation, and even the “cytokine storm.”
In a study involving nine COVID-19 patients over 50, rapid clinical improvement, including hospital discharge, was recorded. This study focused on using nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) cocktail treatment that boosts the NAD+ levels and enhances the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Before the study, the patients were in critical conditions with rapidly declining oxygen saturation levels. However, the treatment resulted in resolving fever within two to three days. Importantly, no patients required intensive unit care.
NAD+ has a vital role in protecting the human body against viral infections. NAD+ levels go down as people age due to a decline in NAD+ synthesis. NAD+ therapy, therefore, has been suggested to manage COVID-19 and its risk of mortality. This might turn over a new page on managing this disease, especially in third-world nations with limited infrastructure and facilities.
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